Rumeli Fortress ( The Europen Fortress )
Rumeli (European Fortress) Fortress; The city had been beseiged many times before the final seige by the Conqueror in 1453, but had managed to defend itself with the help of the Roman city walls, Even during long seiges, provisions were brought into the city from sea. Therefore, to prevent any reinforcements and help coming from the Black Sea during the seige, before the final seige started, a fortress was built on the European shore, opposite the other Turkish fortress built earlier on the Asian shore. The European fortress was completed in an amazingly short time of four months in 1452. This largest and strongest fortress of the Middle Ages was no more important right after the fall of the city. A fine example of classic Turkish fortress architecture, this impressive fortress is another element adorning the Bosphorus.
It was restored in the 1950s and turned into a museum. During the annual Festival of Arts, gardens of the European fortress is used as an amphitheatre. It is viewed best from the asian shores or from the boats operating on the Bosphorus. The campus of Bogazici ( BOSPHORUS ) University is spread on the slopes behind the fortress. Robert College, the first American educational institution established outside the United States, used to occupy this campus. In 1967, the college was turned into a universtiy.