EYUP SULTAN MOSQUE
Eyup is considered a sacred site by Moslems. EYUP-EL-ENSARI, the flag bearer of MOHAMMED, was killed here in the 7th century during the Arab seige.His grave, discovered during the conquest of İstanbul, was enclosed by a large mausoleum, and next to it the first prominent mosque in İstanbul was built. The original mosque,built.The original mosque, built by the Conqueror, collapsed in an earthquake in the 18th century and was replaced by another mosque completed in 1800. On holy days of Islam and every friday, teh mausoleum of Eyup is visited by throngs of believers. The centuries-old trees, flocks of pigeons flying and believers praying, create a lively and mystic atmosphere in the environs of the mosque and the mausoleums.After the Conqueror, each succeeding sultan completed his coronation and swordbearing ceremonies bey visiting the Eyup Sultan district. The hills and slopes behind the district are occupied by cemeteries. The famous Pierre Loti Cafe is on the first hill behind the Eyup district. The famous poet-author Pierre loti who loved Istanbul, came here quite often to admire the view of the Golden Horn.
THE GOLDEN HORN (HALIC)
The Golden Horn, which is a natural harbour, played an important role in the development of the city of İstanbul. It is a narrow inlet dividing the European side into two. Opposite the ancient city is the Galata district. The Golden Horn is approximately 8 km. long and its enrance from the Bosphorus is quite wide.Two streams drain into this inlet at its deep end. There are no tides or currents in this unusually safe harbour which has been used since the establishment of the city. Due to the fertile lands around it,the great variety of fish in waters, the two streams draining into it and its shape, it was referred to as the Golden (meaning fertile) Horn. There are three bridges on the Golden Horn, There are threee bridges on the Golden Horn. The oldest one, the Galata bridge has been replaced by a new bridge which was opened to traffic in 1992. During the Byzantine Empire a thick chain used to be streched across its entrance to keep enemy fleets out of the Golden Horn. Today, there is heavy traffic in the vicinity of Galata Bridge, which was built at the entrance to the Golden Horn. Ferry boats serving the Islands and the districts along the asian shores, and the big cruise ships that bring tourists use the docks the area.
The shipyards and the Sepetciler (Basket Weavers) Pavilion (serving as headquaerters of International Press Agencies) of Topkapi Palace, the railway station built in 1890, which is the last stop for trains arriving from Europe, the Valide Mosque and the Spice Bazaar linet he shore at the Golden Horn. Galata Bridge and its vicinity is the most dynamic and colourful part of the city. During all hours of the day, there is heavy traffic of cars and pedestrians on the bridge which offers a magnificent view of the old city of Istanbul. In the 1950s, many shipyards, and other businesses were established along the shores of the Golden Horn and they contributed heavily to the pullution of its waters and the deterioration of the once scenic area. Since 1983, pollution has been controlled and the area has started to recover.It the last few years, more than four thousand houses, businesses and factories along its shores have been torn down and replaced by parks. There is an interesting church on the shore along the edge of the historic city. Its moulding and steel parts were made in Vienna, brought here and mounted on the building. This buildings is part of the Bulgarian Church. Further down is the Orthodox Patriarchate in the Fener district located amid the remains of the city walls and old districts. Acrooss Fener, in the Kasimpasa district, there is a big 19th century pavalion which, today is the Navy Headquarters.